in the Grenadier Company. Regimental Sergeant Major in Home
were three conflicts between the Maoris and the British in the
19th century; the first in 1845-47, the second in 1860-61 and
then, finally, in 1863-66. The third included the participation
of the 70th (Surrey) Regiment.
His forage cap has the bugle horn of the Light Company and
he still carries a whistle attached to his pouch belt.
Three years after the 1861 truce, the Maoris felt that they had
not been treated fairly and there was some sympathy amongst the
settlers. However, the settlers were determined to support the
Government and establish their own rights. In May, 1863, a party
of the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment, travelling to a courtmartial
in New Plymouth were massacred and this event helped provoke the
longest of the three wars.
The War was not a great one for manoeuvre or campaigns, as most
of the fighting concerned the capture and destruction of Maori
stockades. However, these stockades, or Pahs were well defended,
as the 70th (Surrey) Regiment discovered at the fight at the Great
Pah in 1864. The 70th had reached New Zealand in 1863 and had
taken part in the actions at Katikara and Taranaki. The Regiment
later moved north and at Orakau Pah, Private Dowling was awarded
the Distinguished Conduct Medal; a comparatively rare award before
1914. It took three years and eight British battalions with local
volunteer support before the Maoris were defeated. Following the
1866 peace, the Maoris remained loyal to the Crown and continued
to build on their reputation for bravery. The 70th (Surrey) Regiment
returned to England in 1866 after seventeen years service in India
and New Zealand.
Home Service Dress was worn in New Zealand. The blue serge frock
was worn for campaigning in the Colony, which was much because
of a shortage of red cloth, as for any tactical reason. The fighting
conditions were harsh and often the troops had to wade through
swamp water up to their knees with their trousers in rags. In
1862, flank companies had been abolished in the Army, though whilst
abroad the distinct bugle horn and grenade badges were still often
worn on forage caps.